Students in the UK spend around 12 years in full-time education between the ages of 4 and 16. This period plays an instrumental role in the development of a wide array of skills, which go on to have a significant impact on future employment and earnings. The government makes a considerable investment in children during this period: students educated in state schools who took their GCSEs in 2015-16 had an average of £57,000 spent on their primary and secondary education.
There are a large number of factors that can impact student attainment at school including school organisation; the training and retention of high-quality teachers; the behaviour and ability of the peer group; and within school practices such ability-based setting or teaching styles. In our research, we set out the level spending per pupil on primary and secondary education and the extent of variation between schools across the county. We show how this translates into school inputs and how these inputs – such as pupil-teacher ratios, teacher pay and breakfast clubs – impact student outcomes including attainment and earnings. We have investigated the costs and benefits of the different teacher training routes and explored recent trends the educational attainment of new teachers.
Our research has contributed to the policy debate around primary and secondary education. For example, we have produced widely cited figures on the trajectory of school spending and policy; we have set out the lessons that can be learnt from the effect of London schools on the attainment; and we have investigated the role of grammar schools in social mobility.